The underlying theme of these papers is the issue of social control. We ask: In what ways did the Euroamerican minority ruling class begin to exercise control in Hawai'i at the beginning of the Territorial era? Control can be understood broadly: control of the landscape through dredging harbors and filling wetlands; control of people through the development of institutions; control of knowledge through the medium of the University; control of the perception of race and ethnicity expressed in community-sponsored parades, holidays, and celebrations. The papers are historically located in the Territorial period, because it remains an under-researched period in the history of Hawai'i. The historiography of Hawai'i has a tendency to inexorably toward Statehood, as if that were the inevitable outcome of the European contact with Native Hawaiians. Consequently, the history of Hawai'i, particulary for the period between the Overthrow of the Monarchy and Pearl Harbor, is fragmented and disjointed, which makes research, especially for undergraduates, arduous and discouraging.
Floral parade 1910
School teachers, Kealia Kauai circa 1912
Wailua Oahu dental clinic